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AIT Civil & Construction Engineering: Referencing

Information guide for engineering.

What is Referencing?

What is Referencing?

Anything that you have read, and refer to in your academic writing, you must:·  

  • acknowledge in text (i.e. in the work / assignment/ essay you are writing) - citing


  • include in your reference list (i.e. the list at the end of your work of all the sources to which you refer) - referencing

This means books, journals, magazines, newspaper articles, websites, documents on websites (PDFs), lecture notes, PowerPoint slides.... 

Citing, Referencing & Avoiding Plagiarism Libguide.

Harvard Referencing

There are hundreds of various styles of referencing.  The Harvard style (or name and date) is one most used in AIT.  However, always check with your lecturer on which style they require.

AIT Harvard Libguide




A free, easy-to-use tool to help you collect, organize, cite, and share your research sources, download a client for Windows, Mac or Linux; a Firefox extension; and connectors for Chrome, Safari, Opera and Bookmarklet; plugins for Microsoft Office and LibreOffice.  

Currently not compatible with Internet Explorer.  Firefox extension or Chrome connectors can pick up detailed record metadata from library catalogue entries, official publications and websites as well as ejournal articles.  

Desktop client will also store pdfs where accessible.  Additional styles can be added from the repository.

BibUP - An App for Android or iOS which scans or searches for book or journal barcodes to add to a website from which you can add the references to Zotero.


Mendeley reference manager logo

Mendeley is free reference manager.  It includes a desktop version and a web importer.  

When installed, a Microsoft Word plugin may be added.
References may be extracted from pdf documents.  


A series of short animated films that put copyright and creativity under the magnifying glass of Sherlock Holmes. Written, Produced and Directed by Ronan Deazley and Bartolomeo Meletti

Information Literacy Game



Material Type  Examples of an 'In Text Citation' Examples of a full Reference

Image, figure, illustration, photo or table


Reference to an image (reproduced in your work)

Template: (Author date)                 

Diagrams etc. are usually accompanied by a brief description and are listed throughout a piece of  work by figure number.                             

  When referring to diagrams, graphs, tables, illustrations, photographs, etc. in the text, you should use Figure number (and Source if relevant).

Note: Images adapted from other works - reproduced in your in text 

A table of data or graph which is taken from another work should be acknowledged as a reference like any extract from a published source. In the context of a graph, it is labelled a figure, e.g. Figure 1. The source citation or InText Caption is placed after the title of the graph with the author’s, the year of publication and page number (if a book)


Figure 1: Questions the Literature Review can Answer (Source: The Learning Centre, 2007, p.66) 






  • Author 
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of image, figure, (in Italics)
  • [Type of image]
  • Title of book which contains the image
  • edn (if 1st ed do not include)
  • Place of publishing: Publisher (if available)
  • Page, illus.


Reference to an image in a Book (not reproduced) As shown in a photograph, Fig. 2. (University of Limerick 2003, p. 10 )...

University of Limerick (1999) Postgraduate student at work in the telecommunications laboratory. [Photograph] University of Limerick: a celebration. Limerick: University of Limerick, 105p., illus.

Image – on the web (Not reproduced but mentioned) (Author, date)


  • Author 
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of image, figure, (in Italics)
  • [Type of image]
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date]
 and 3; Image on the Web (mentioned not reproduced) 


 (Coca Cola 2007)...



 Note: If there is no responsible person or body given then use the image title and date for in-text citation see internet example below..


(Where to study for finals 2012)


Coca Cola (2007) New Coke logo. [Image] Available at:

lg_new_coke_logo.jpg [Accessed 16 August 2007].


Note: If there is no author: use image title as author





Where to study for finals (2012) [photograph] Available at: [Accessed 16 December 2013].


In an Online journal                                      





As shown in a diagram labelled, 'Storyboard for Ivan's mornng routine' (Buggey 2007)               


  • Author 
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of image, figure
  • [Type of image]
  • Title of journal , (in Italics)
  • (Volume), Issue
  • pages
  • Available at: URL
  • [Date accessed].

Buggey. T. (2007) Storyboard for Ivan's morning routine. [Diagram] Journal of Positive Behaviour Interventions, 9 (3) p.151. Available at: Academic Search Premier, [Accessed 18 December 2013].


When referencing images that come from articles,

  • Check the article content for additional source information, such as a photographer or illustrator. 
  • If an alternate name is available, use that in place of the article's author(s).
  • If the image has a title or caption, use that in place of the article title. 
  • After the article or image title and before the journal title, insert the image type.
  • Image types are: Chart, Diagram, Graph, Illustration, Map, or Photograph
  • Replace the page range of the article with the page number for the image.