Skip to main content

AIT Harvard: TAB A: How to do an 'IN-TEXT CITATION'

In-text citation notes

In-text citation notes:

The Harvard Style stipulates that you must cite in two places:

  • In the Reference List or Bibliography at the end of the essay/document

  •  In the body of the text of your essay/document, this is called In-text citation

There are two main types of In-text citation:  

Direct quotation: Reproduction of a phrase or passage from a book, articles, report. etc.

Paraphrasing:  A restatement of a text or passage in your own words

Here is an extract showing what in-text citations look like followed by the reference list

Example one: Paraphrasing from a book (Idea taken from text but put in different words)

 

On the subject of employee motivation Evenden and Anderson (1992, p. 45) suggest that in order to improve motivation for appraisal, that an objective for each key area of a job need to be developed

 

Example two: An In-text paraphrase from a journal article and also an In-text direct quotation from a chapter in an edited book

 

To measure creativity, some psychologists have generated tests of divergent thinking – the ability to think among many paths to generate multiple solutions to a problem (Diakidoy and Spanoudis, 2002). The Consequence Test is an example. It contains items such as ‘Imagine all the things that might possibly happen if all national and local laws were suddenly abolished’. (Guilford, 1959, p. 22)

 

 

In-text citation: Further Examples

 Recent educational research (Lewis and Jones, 2009) has shown that........      
In a newly published survey Hill and Reid (2010, p. 93) argue that........         
.....taken from new research on health awareness (Walsh et al., 2009, p. 88)

 

In-Text Citation (Author date) - entry that appears in the body of your paper when you express the ideas of a researcher or author using your own words.

In-Text Citation (Author date, page number) - entry that appears in the body of your paper after a direct quote or when paraphrasing a passage, summarising an idea from a particular page or you want to direct the reader to a specific page.

 

Note: Inserting Pagination: 

  • When quoting directly, or when using ideas from a specific page or paragraph of a work, the page number(s) should be included in the citation though it is not essential for paraphrasing.
  • If the idea used is a general one that runs through the work then the citation would be of author and date only.
  • Page numbers are not required for in text citation of articles in a journal unless it is a direct quotation
  • If you are quoting from a webpage or source without a page number you do not need to include a page reference
  • You can structure your sentence to include the in-text citation: EG: Critser said in 2003 (p.31) 
  • If there are no page numbers: Count your paragraphs and refer if possible to the paragraph number and/or section heading: (Critser 2003, para. 11) OR (Critser 2003, Introduction, para. 2)

In-text citation: examples of Direct Quotations:

 

As a general rule (which varies depending on subject matter), quotations should be less than 10% of your total word count

When quoting a page or paragraph the page number is always required within the in-text citation

 

  • Use single quotation marks for quotes.  
  • Double quotation marks for a quoted speech or for a quote within a quote

 

Examples of In-text citation for quotes:
 
Example for a single page: (use p.)  
'It would be foolhardy to think that all learning in organizations is planned' (French, 2005, p.123)
 
Example for a page range (use pp):  
 
'For organizations, knowledge acquisition is tied up with systems for codifying and disseminating information.' (French, 2005, pp. 140-141)

 

Example of an extended quote    

If the quotation is of 30 words or over then it should be: (a) On a separate paragraph, (b) In a one size smaller font, (c) Left indented, (d) No quotation marks, (e) Preceded by a full colon.

 

 

In speaking of the relationship between empowerment and self-efficacy, French (2005) has this to say: 
The concept of empowerment is founded on the belief that everyone has an internal need for self-determination and a need to cope with environmental demands directly. This suggests that appropriate empowerment strategies can raise the perception of low self-efficacy. Self-efficacy refers to a person's belief that they can preform adequately in a situation. (p.185)  

 

In-text citation Multiple Authors: 

2 Authors

Example

(Smith and Doheny, 2003, p. 31)

 

3 or more authors can use 'et al.' for in-text citations but use all author names in your Reference list at end of essay.

 

Example of In-text quotation for a reference to multiple authors 

According to Critser et al., 'all human psychology is influenced by upbringing'. (2003, p. 31) or 'All human psychology is influenced by upbringing'. (Critser et al., 2003, p. 31)  or 'All human psychology is influenced by upbringing' Critser et al. (2003, p. 31).

 

In-text Citation: Source quoted in another source

If you refer to a source which you have not read, but which is mentioned in a source you have read, you cite both in the text but include only the work you have read in the list of references. This is also described as 'secondary citing'.

In text:
A study by Allen (2001, cited in Parker, 2009, p. 45) showed that…
or
Smith 1990 (cited in Buckroyd, 1996, p. 27)
or
Smith (1990) cited in (Buckroyd, 1996, p. 27)
In your list of references you should include only the work you have read, i.e. Parker.
Author's Surname(s), INITIALS. (Year of Publication) Title.(in italics) Edition (if needed). Place of Publication: Publisher.
e.g.
Parker, N.L. (2009) Strategic management. Mason, Ohio: Thomson South-Western.

 

In-text Citation: More variants                                        

Two or more documents with the same author and year of publication

These are distinguished by lower-case letters following the year

Example:

Wheeler (1961a) describes the process in his study. In a second paper Wheeler (1961b) goes on to further explain...

 

Referring to two different sources at the same time

Example: 
(Cooper, 1998; Critser, 2003) 

Note: The sources should be cited chronologically by year of publication with the most recent source first. If more than one work is published in the same year, then they should be listed alphabetically by author/editor.

 

Chapter in an edited book

Use the author of the chapter and and date of the book in your in text reference

Full reference see Reference format Books 

Appendices In text

Example in-text citation for Appendices:

Your Own Appendix

Add your appendix immediately following your reference pages and label it as Appendix A, B, C, etc. Use these labels when discussing the appendix in the body of your paper. In the paper, after the sentence in which you are referencing your appendix, format the in-text citation as (See Appendix A). The letter should match the appropriate appendix label. Do not cite your own appendix on the reference page. If there is only one Appendix just refer to it as Appendix

Another Author's Appendix

When using an appendix from another author, include this information on your reference page. For example, a citation on the reference page for an appendix found in a book should read: Author. (year). Appendix A of Title of work. Location: Publisher. The appendix letter should match the appropriate section you are using.

An in text reference to an appendix can also give some more details:

Example: Inner city mental health care access continues to be a problem (see Appendix for a table showing mental health care access by city).

 

Figures and tables in the appendices are labeled A1, A2, B1, and so forth, according to the appendix in which they appear. (Note: Omit the letter if there is only one appendix.)