The Harvard Style stipulates that you must cite in two places:
In the Reference List or Bibliography at the end of the essay/document
In the body of the text of your essay/document, this is called In-text citation
There are two main types of In-text citation:
Direct quotation: Reproduction of a phrase or passage from a book, articles, report. etc.
Paraphrasing: A restatement of a text or passage in your own words
In-text citation: Paraphrasing examples
In-text paraphrasing (Idea taken from text but put in different words)
On the subject of employee motivation Evenden and Anderson (1992, p. 45) suggest that in order to improve motivation for appraisal, that an objective for each key area of a job need to be developed
Example two: An In-text paraphrase from a journal article
Information prominent: To measure creativity, some psychologists have generated tests of divergent thinking – the ability to think among many paths to generate multiple solutions to a problem (Diakidoy and Spanoudis, 2002, p.444).
In-text citation: Further Examples
Author Prominent: Recent educational research Lewis and Jones (2009, p.23) has shown that........
or Hill and Reid in a newly published survey (2010, p. 93), argue that........
.....Walsh (2009) states that new research on health awareness is of primary importance (p. 88).
Pagination: whether to use a page number
In-Text Citation (Author date, page number) - use this in the body of your paper after a direct quote or when paraphrasing a passage, summarising an idea from a particular page or you want to direct the reader to a specific page. When referencing journal articles do not include a page number
Further notes on pagination
In-text citation: Direct Quotation examples:
As a general rule (which varies depending on subject matter), quotations should be less than 10% of your total word count
When quoting a page or paragraph the page number is always required within the in-text citation
- Use single quotation marks for quotes.
- Double quotation marks for a quoted speech or for a quote within a quote
Examples of In-text citation for quotes:
Example for a single page: (use p.)
'It would be foolhardy to think that all learning in organizations is planned' (French, 2005, p.123)
Example for a page range (use pp):
'For organizations, knowledge acquisition is tied up with systems for codifying and disseminating information.' (French, 2005, pp. 140-141)
Example of an extended quote
If the quotation is of 30 words or over then it should be: (a) On a separate paragraph, (b) In a one size smaller font, (c) Left indented, (d) No quotation marks, (e) Preceded by a full colon.
In speaking of the relationship between empowerment and self-efficacy, French (2005) has this to say:
The concept of empowerment is founded on the belief that everyone has an internal need for self-determination and a need to cope with environmental demands directly. This suggests that appropriate empowerment strategies can raise the perception of low self-efficacy. Self-efficacy refers to a person's belief that they can perform adequately in a situation. (p.185)
In-text referencing for Multiple Authors (3 or more)
(Smith and Doheny, 2003, p. 31)
Multiple authors :
You can use the first author surname 'et al.' for in-text citations for multiple authors
However in your full reference you must list all authors - see examples on Tab C of this guide.
According to Critser et al., 'all human psychology is influenced by upbringing'. (2003, p. 31)
'All human psychology is influenced by upbringing'. (Critser et al., 2003, p. 31)
In-text citation for a secondary reference
If you refer to a source which you have not read, but which is mentioned in a source you have read, you cite both in your in-text reference but include only the work you have actually read in the full reference list at the end.
In text examples
text....(Allen, 2001 cited in Parker, 2009, p.45)
A study by Allen (2001, cited in Parker, 2009, p. 45) showed that…
according to Allen, 2001 (cited in Parker, 2009, p. 45) there is ample evidence to claim ...
Full Reference example:
In your full list of references you should include only the work you have read, i.e. the primary reference; in this instance 'Parker'.
Parker, N.L. (2009) Strategic management. Mason, Ohio: Thomson South-Western
Two or more documents with the same author and year of publication
These are distinguished by lower-case letters following the year
Wheeler (1961a) describes the process in his study. In a second paper Wheeler (1961b) goes on to further explain...
Referring to two different sources at the same time
(Cooper, 2004; Critser, 2003)
Note: The sources should be cited chronologically by year of publication with the most recent source first. If more than one work is published in the same year, then they should be listed alphabetically by author/editor.
Use the author of the chapter and and date of the book in your in text reference
Full reference see Reference format Books
Note: Inserting Pagination:
- When quoting directly, or when using ideas from a specific page or paragraph of a work, the page number(s) should be included in the citation though it is not essential for paraphrasing.
- If the idea used is a general one that runs through the work then the citation would be of author and date only.
- Page numbers are not required for in text citation of articles in a journal unless it is a direct quotation
- If you are quoting from a webpage or source without a page number you do not need to include a page reference
- You can structure your sentence to include the in-text citation: EG: Critser said in 2003 (p.31)
- If there are no page numbers: Count your paragraphs and refer if possible to the paragraph number and/or section heading: (Critser 2003, para. 11) OR (Critser 2003, Introduction, para. 2)
Appendices In-Text Referencing
Example in-text citation for Appendices:
Your Own Appendix
Add your appendix immediately following your reference pages and label it as Appendix A, B, C, etc. Use these labels when discussing the appendix in the body of your paper. In the paper, after the sentence in which you are referencing your appendix, format the in-text citation as (See Appendix A). The letter should match the appropriate appendix label. Do not cite your own appendix on the reference page. If there is only one Appendix just refer to it as Appendix
Another Author's Appendix
When using an appendix from another author, include this information on your reference page. For example, a citation on the reference page for an appendix found in a book should read: Author. (year). Appendix A of Title of work. Location: Publisher. The appendix letter should match the appropriate section you are using.
An in text reference to an appendix can also give some more details:
Example: Inner city mental health care access continues to be a problem (see Appendix for a table showing mental health care access by city).
Figures and tables in the appendices are labeled A1, A2, B1, and so forth, according to the appendix in which they appear. (Note: Omit the letter if there is only one appendix.)