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AIT Harvard: TAB A: How to do an 'IN-TEXT CITATION'

In-text citation notes

In-text citation notes:

The Harvard Style stipulates that you must cite in two places:

  • In the Reference List or Bibliography at the end of the essay/document

  •  In the body of the text of your essay/document, this is called In-text citation

There are two main types of In-text citation:  

Direct quotation: Reproduction of a phrase or passage from a book, articles, report. etc.

Paraphrasing:  A restatement of a text or passage in your own words




In-text citation: Paraphrasing examples

In-text paraphrasing (Idea taken from text but put in different words)

On the subject of employee motivation Evenden and Anderson (1992, p. 45) suggest that in order to improve motivation for appraisal, that an objective for each key area of a job need to be developed

Example two: An In-text paraphrase from a journal article

Information prominent: To measure creativity, some psychologists have generated tests of divergent thinking – the ability to think among many paths to generate multiple solutions to a problem (Diakidoy and Spanoudis, 2002, p.444). 

In-text citation: Further Examples

Author Prominent:  Recent educational research Lewis and Jones (2009, p.23) has shown that........      
or  Hill and Reid in a newly published survey (2010, p. 93), argue that........         
.....Walsh (2009) states that new research on health awareness is of primary importance (p. 88).

Pagination: whether to use a page number

In-Text Citation (Author date) - use this in the body of your paper when you express the ideas of a researcher or author using your own words.

In-Text Citation (Author date, page number) - use this in the body of your paper after a direct quote or when paraphrasing a passage, summarising an idea from a particular page or you want to direct the reader to a specific page.


In-text citation: Direct Quotation examples:


As a general rule (which varies depending on subject matter), quotations should be less than 10% of your total word count

When quoting a page or paragraph the page number is always required within the in-text citation


  • Use single quotation marks for quotes.  
  • Double quotation marks for a quoted speech or for a quote within a quote


Examples of In-text citation for quotes:
Example for a single page: (use p.)  
'It would be foolhardy to think that all learning in organizations is planned' (French, 2005, p.123)
Example for a page range (use pp):  
'For organizations, knowledge acquisition is tied up with systems for codifying and disseminating information.' (French, 2005, pp. 140-141)


Example of an extended quote    

If the quotation is of 30 words or over then it should be: (a) On a separate paragraph, (b) In a one size smaller font, (c) Left indented, (d) No quotation marks, (e) Preceded by a full colon.



In speaking of the relationship between empowerment and self-efficacy, French (2005) has this to say: 


The concept of empowerment is founded on the belief that everyone has an internal need for self-determination and a need to cope with environmental demands directly. This suggests that appropriate empowerment strategies can raise the perception of low self-efficacy. Self-efficacy refers to a person's belief that they can perform adequately in a situation. (p.185)