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AIT Harvard: E Books

Referencing E Books

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

What is a Digital Object Identifier (DOI)?

digital object identifier (DOI) is a character string (a "digital identifier") used for identifying content objects in the digital environment, such as an electronic document.

DOI names are used to provide current information, including where they (or information about them) can be found on the Internet. Information about a digital object may change over time, including where to find it, but its DOI name will not change.

To find a document using a DOI

  1. Copy the DOI of the document you want to open and paste into search box at

More information

E Books

Material    Type In Text Examples Reference List Example  

E- Book online:      









Specific Example


(Author, Date)








(Munro et al., 1989, p. 39)    


  • Author 
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title (in Italics)
  • Edition (only if not first, format edn.)
  • Place of publishing:
  • Publisher (if available)
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed: date]


Munro, A., Manthei, B & Small, J. (1989) Counselling: the skills of problem-solving. 3rd edn. London: Longman Paul. Available at:   [Accessed 20 August 2012].

E-Book on College E Book Database ....there now follows an excerpt from McLaney (2009, pp. 22-23) McLaney, E. (2009) Business finance. Essex, UK: Pearson Education. Available at: [Accessed 15 August 2012].

E-Book on College E Book Database

Example 2

.. according to Smith, 'Covert PRM involves letting go of muscle tension without first tensing up.' (2005, p. 9) Smith, J.C. (2005) Relaxation meditation & mindfulness. 2nd edn. New York: Springer. Available at Ebrary database [Accessed 21 August 2014].
E-Book on College E book database: Example 3

(Smith, 2001, p. 78)

Smith, J.C. (2001) Advances in ABC relaxation: applications and inventories. New York: Springer. Available at: [Accessed 18 July 2013].

 Note: Available at: Either the name of the E books database or the url can be given 

E Book on E Reader

 Smith states..... (2008)

Note: E-books often lack page numbers (though PDF versions may have them). If page numbers are not available on ebook readers, use the chapters instead for indicating the location of a quoted section:

Smith, A. (2008) The wealth of nations. Available at: [Accessed 20 August 2010].

Include the book’s DOI (digital object idenitifer) or where you downloaded the e-book from (if there is no DOI)

Smith, A. (2008) The wealth of nations. Available at: doi:10.1036/007142363X [Accessed 20 August 2010].

E Book on College Journal Database (Jecter, 2007, p. 45) Jester, R. (2007) Advancing practice in rehabilitation nursing. Wiley-Blackwell. Available at: Ovid database [Accessed 10 June 2012].
E Book on College Journal Database: example 2 According to Chakrabarti (2007, p. 65) or.. the idea is also mentioned in Chakrabarti (2007, p. 65) ...or (Chakrabarti, 2007, p. 65) etc..

Chakrabarti, S. (2007) Handbook of offshore engineering. London: Elsevier. Available at Science Direct Database [Accessed 30 September 2012].

If a digital object identifier (DOI) is available include that also

Chakrabarti, S. (2007) Handbook of offshore engineering. London: Elsevier. Available at: Science Direct Database, DOI 10.1016/B978-008044381-2.50000-X [Accessed 30 September 2012].