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AIT Harvard: Further Notes for in-text referencing

In-text citation notes



In-text citations for Multiple Authors: 

2 Authors

(Smith and Doheny, 2003, p. 31)

Multiple authors :

You can use the first author surname 'et al.' for in-text citations for multiple authors

According to Critser et al., 'all human psychology is influenced by upbringing'. (2003, p. 31)


'All human psychology is influenced by upbringing'. (Critser et al., 2003, p. 31) 


In-text citation for a secondary reference

If you refer to a source which you have not read, but which is mentioned in a source you have read, you cite both in your in-text reference but include only the work you have actually read in the full reference list at the end.

In text examples
A study by Allen (2001, cited in Parker, 2009, p. 45) showed that…
according to Allen, 2001 (cited in Parker, 2009, p. 45) there is ample evidence to claim ...

Full Reference example:
In your full list of references you should include only the work you have read, i.e. the primary reference; in this instance 'Parker'.

Parker, N.L. (2009) Strategic management. Mason, Ohio: Thomson South-Western


Two or more documents with the same author and year of publication

These are distinguished by lower-case letters following the year


Wheeler (1961a) describes the process in his study. In a second paper Wheeler (1961b) goes on to further explain...


Referring to two different sources at the same time

(Cooper, 1998; Critser, 2003) 

Note: The sources should be cited chronologically by year of publication with the most recent source first. If more than one work is published in the same year, then they should be listed alphabetically by author/editor.


In-text reference of a chapter in an edited book

Use the author of the chapter and and date of the book in your in text reference

Full reference see Reference format Books 


Note: Inserting Pagination: 

  • When quoting directly, or when using ideas from a specific page or paragraph of a work, the page number(s) should be included in the citation though it is not essential for paraphrasing.
  • If the idea used is a general one that runs through the work then the citation would be of author and date only.
  • Page numbers are not required for in text citation of articles in a journal unless it is a direct quotation
  • If you are quoting from a webpage or source without a page number you do not need to include a page reference
  • You can structure your sentence to include the in-text citation: EG: Critser said in 2003 (p.31) 
  • If there are no page numbers: Count your paragraphs and refer if possible to the paragraph number and/or section heading: (Critser 2003, para. 11) OR (Critser 2003, Introduction, para. 2)

Appendices In text

Example in-text citation for Appendices:

Your Own Appendix

Add your appendix immediately following your reference pages and label it as Appendix A, B, C, etc. Use these labels when discussing the appendix in the body of your paper. In the paper, after the sentence in which you are referencing your appendix, format the in-text citation as (See Appendix A). The letter should match the appropriate appendix label. Do not cite your own appendix on the reference page. If there is only one Appendix just refer to it as Appendix

Another Author's Appendix

When using an appendix from another author, include this information on your reference page. For example, a citation on the reference page for an appendix found in a book should read: Author. (year). Appendix A of Title of work. Location: Publisher. The appendix letter should match the appropriate section you are using.

An in text reference to an appendix can also give some more details:

Example: Inner city mental health care access continues to be a problem (see Appendix for a table showing mental health care access by city).


Figures and tables in the appendices are labeled A1, A2, B1, and so forth, according to the appendix in which they appear. (Note: Omit the letter if there is only one appendix.)