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AIT Harvard: PASS

In-text citation

Harvard In text citations: Answers


These in text examples are taken from pager 22 of the book: Sociology by Anthony Giddens, 6th edition published in 2009.

 Paraphrase (put an idea in your own words) the following example with in text citation included

One possible answer (a number of variations are possible):_

People of Indian origin have comparable home quality to whites and are also less likely to live in an inner city area than other ethnic groups (Giddens, 2009, p.22)

Do a direct Quote and in-text citation of the following

Answer: ..

‘Ethnic minorities in Britain, as elsewhere, tend to experience discrimination, harassment and material deprivation in the housing market.’  (Giddens, 2009, p22)

Paraphrase the following example of a source within another source as an in-text citation only.

One possible answer: ...._..Some racial groups including those from India have good levels of home ownership and other racial groups live in sub-standard housing (Ratcliffe, 1999, cited in Giddens, 2009, p.22) _________________________________________________________

Book reference answer


Coston, B. R. (2012) The gift of pets: stories only a vet could tell. New York: Thomas Dunne Books.

Edited Book Reference Answer

Chapter in an edited book

Fraser, M. (2009) Physiology relevant to anesthesia. In: Welsh, L. ed. Anaesthesia for veterinary nurses. 2nd edn. Chichester: Wiley- Blackwell, pp. 19-39.

Online Journal Article Answer

Journal (online)

Duggleby, W., Hicks, D., Nekolaichuk, C., Holtslander, L., Williams, A., Chambers, T. & Eby, J. (2012) Hope, older adults, and chronic illness: a metasynthesis of qualitative research. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68 (6), pp. 1211–1223. Available at: DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05919.x, [Accessed 22 September 2016].


Note:  ‘Available at: Ovid database’ would also be correct, however DOI (digital object identifier) numbers are now common and an acceptable method of sourcing materials

Internet Reference Answer


The British Association of Social Workers (2016) Social work careers. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 12 June 2016].