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TUS: Cite them right: Harvard Guide

In-Text information links

The Harvard Style stipulates that you must cite in two places:

  •  In the text of your essay/document, this is called an In-text citation or In-text reference.

  • In the Reference List or Bibliography at the end of the essay/document.

Types of In-text citation:  

Paraphrasing:  A restatement of a text or passage in your own words (This is most commonly used).

Direct quotation: Reproduction of a phrase or passage from a book, articles, report. etc.

Summarising: This is where the ideas from another source are shortened as well as being put in your own words.

In-text citation: Paraphrasing examples (Idea taken from another and put in one's own words).

Use the surname(s) of the author(s) and the date of publication, also include the page number if it is  a quotation or an idea from a specific page.

On the subject of employee motivation, Evenden and Anderson (1992, p. 45) suggest that in order to improve motivation for appraisal, that an objective for each key area of a job need to be developed.

Further examples of different ways to include the in-text reference in a sentence:

Information prominent: To measure creativity, some psychologists have generated tests of divergent thinking – the ability to think among many paths to generate multiple solutions to a problem (Diakidoy and Spanoudis, 2002, p.444). 

Author Prominent:  Recent educational research Lewis and Jones (2009, p.23) has shown that........      
or  Hill and Reid in a newly published survey (2010), argue that........         
.....Walsh (2009) states that new research on health awareness is of primary importance (p. 88).


Short quotes (up to two to three lines) should be enclosed in quotation marks (single or double - be consistent) and included in the body of your text. Give the author, date and page number(s) that the quotation was taken from.

Examples of In-text citation for quotes:

Example for a single page: (use p.)  
'It would be foolhardy to think that all learning in organizations is planned' (French, 2005, p.123)
Example for a page range (use pp.)
'It would be foolhardy to think that all learning in organizations is planned' (French, 2005, pp. 22-25)
Example of an extended quote:

If the quotation is more than three lines it should be:

(a) On a separate paragraph

(b) Left indented

(d) No quotation marks

(d) Preceded by a full colon.

In speaking of the relationship between empowerment and self-efficacy, French (2005) has this to say: 

The concept of empowerment is founded on the belief that everyone has an internal need for self-determination and a need to cope with environmental demands directly. This suggests that appropriate empowerment strategies can raise the perception of low self-efficacy. Self-efficacy refers to a person's belief that they can perform adequately in a situation. (p.185)  

Making changes to a quotation

Omitting parts of a quotation:

Indicate this by using three dots ... (called ellipsis).

Example: 'The concept of empowerment ... suggests that appropriate empowerment strategies can raise the perception of low self-efficacy.' (French, 2005, p. 185).

For 3 Authors (or less): list all for in-text citations.

e.g. (Walsh, Smith and Doherty, 2013, p. 31).

Multiple authors (more than 3) :

Use the first author surname 'et al.' for In-text citations for multiple authors

e.g. 'All human psychology is influenced by upbringing'. (Critser et al. 2003, p. 31) 

Please note: In your full reference you should as a rule (unless your academic allows the use of  'et al' in the reference list also), list all authors - see examples on Tab C of this guide.

Secondary Referencing:
In some cases you may want to refer to a source that is mentioned or quoted in the work you are reading. This is known as secondary referencing. 
In all referencing styles you are strongly encouraged to keep secondary referencing to a minimum and whenever possible you should read and cite from the original or primary source. 

If you refer to a source which you have not read, but which is mentioned in a source you have read, you cite both in your in-text reference but include only the work you have actually read in the full reference list at the end.

Use the phase 'quoted in' or 'cited in' depending on whether the author of the work you are reading is directly quoting or summarising from the original.

In text examples:

A study by Allen (2001, cited in Parker, 2009) showed that…
according to Smith (2020, quoted in Burns, 2021, p. 32) there is ample evidence to claim ...

Full Reference example:
In your full list of references you should include only the work you have read, if you have not read Parker's or Burn's work yourself, you cannot include them in your reference list. They will only appear as citations as above.

Sometimes you may need to cite two (or more) publications by a primary (first listed) author in the same year. To distinguish between the items in-text, allocate lower case letters in alphabetical order after the publication date.


Wheeler (2019a) describes the process in his study. In a second paper Wheeler (2019b) goes on to further explain...
In the reference list the publications would look like this:
Wheeler, R. (2019a) 'Leadership and management styles in third level educational.' Journal of academic management,
3(4) p. 34.
Wheeler, R. (2019b) 'Leading by example: case studies in third level.' Journal of academic management,
5(4) p. 88-91.

Citing a source with no date:

Use the phrase 'no date'.

Example: In a study on level of participation in games in secondary education (Smith and Hearney, no date) ..

Citing a source with no author or date:

Use the title and 'no date'

Example: Coordinated travel systems work at a national level (Transport analysis in European cities, no date)

(Cooper, 2004; Critser, 2003) 

Note: The sources should be cited chronologically by year of publication with the most recent source first. If more than one work is published in the same year, then they should be listed alphabetically by author/editor.

In-text reference for a chapter in an edited book:

Use the author of the chapter and and date of the book in your in text reference.

The depiction of a social imperative is clear in Smith (2019) ...

Full reference: Smith, F. (2019) 'Social classes in victorian times', in Slone, F. (ed) The experience of division in society. Dublin: Penguin, pp. 23-24.

Appendices are included after the main reference list. An appendix should be clearly labelled with a letter (A) or a number (1), so your reader will know where to look for this additional information outside your main text. If an appendix contains information from other sources, these should be cited in-text in the appendix, with full references given at the end of the appendix as a separate reference list.