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Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics: Referencing

What is Referencing?

What is Referencing?

Anything that you have read, and refer to in your academic writing, you must:·  

  • acknowledge in text (i.e. in the work / assignment/ essay you are writing) - citing


  • include in your reference list (i.e. the list at the end of your work of all the sources to which you refer) - referencing

This means books, journals, magazines, newspaper articles, websites, documents on websites (PDFs), lecture notes, PowerPoint slides.... 

Citing, Referencing & Avoiding Plagiarism Libguide.

Harvard Referencing

There are hundreds of various styles of referencing.  The Harvard style (or name and date) is one most used in TUS.  However, always check with your lecturer on which style they require.

TUS Athlone Harvard Libguide

Information Literacy Game


A series of short animated films that put copyright and creativity under the magnifying glass of Sherlock Holmes. Written, Produced and Directed by Ronan Deazley and Bartolomeo Meletti



A free, easy-to-use tool to help you collect, organize, cite, and share your research sources.  Download a client for Windows, Mac or Linux; a connector for Firefox, Edge, Chrome, or Safari; plugins for Microsoft Office and LibreOffice.  

Browser connectors can pick up detailed record metadata from library catalogue entries, official publications and websites as well as ejournal articles.  

Zotero's desktop client will also store pdfs where available online.  To add saved PDFs, drag and drop into the desktop client, Zotero will create the reference entry if the metadata is retrievable. 

Additional styles can be added from the repository.

If the Word plugin doesn't install, click on Cite - Word Processers - Install...

Zotero word plugin

To use for referencing a chapter in an edited book

  • Add the reference for the book, change the item type to book section.
  • Add the chapter title
  • Change the author to editor
  • Add an author field and type in the chapter author
  • Fill in the pages field

To use for In-text citation of secondary references

  • When adding the citation, use the prefix box to add the author who was quoted in the work you are referencing.Zotero edit in-text citation

Importing Word bibliographies - requires third party software.


Mendeley Referencing Management Software

Mendeley is free reference manager.  It includes a desktop version and a web importer.  

When installed, a Microsoft Word plugin may be added.
References may be extracted from pdf documents.  



Material Type  Examples of an 'In Text Citation' Examples of a full Reference

Image, figure, illustration, photo or table

(Reproduced in your assignment)

Template: (Author date)                 

Diagrams etc. are usually accompanied by a brief description and are listed throughout a piece of work by figure number.                      

 When referring to diagrams, graphs, tables, illustrations, photographs, etc. in the text, you should use Figure number (and Source if relevant).

Note: Images adapted from other works - reproduced in your text 

A table of data or graph which is taken from another work should be acknowledged as a reference like any extract from a published source. In the context of a graph, it is labelled a figure, e.g. Figure 1. The source citation or InText Caption is placed after the title of the graph with the author’s, the year of publication and page number (if a book)


Figure 1: Questions the Literature Review can Answer (Source: The Learning Centre, 2007, p.66) 





  • Author 
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of image, figure, (in Italics)
  • [Type of image]
  • Title of book which contains the image
  • edn (if 1st ed do not include)
  • Place of publishing: Publisher (if available)
  • Page, illus. (or Page, graph.)


The Learning Centre (2007) Questions the literature review can answer. [Diagram] A guide to writing a literature review. Dublin: Arrow publishing, p. 25., illus.

Reference to an image in a Book (not reproduced) As shown in a photograph, Fig. 2. (University of Limerick 2003, p. 10 )...

University of Limerick (1999) Postgraduate student at work in the telecommunications laboratory. [Photograph] University of Limerick: a celebration. Limerick: University of Limerick, p.105., illus.

Image – on the web (Not reproduced but mentioned) (Author, date)


  • Author 
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of image, figure, (in Italics)
  • [Type of image]
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date]
 and 3; Image on the Web (mentioned not reproduced) 


 (Coca Cola 2007)...



 Note: If there is no responsible person or body given then use the image title and date for in-text citation see internet example below..


(Where to study for finals 2012)


Coca Cola (2007) New Coke logo. [Image] Available at:

lg_new_coke_logo.jpg [Accessed 16 August 2007].


Note: If there is no author: use image title as author





Where to study for finals (2012) [photograph] Available at: [Accessed 16 December 2013].


In an Online journal                                      





As shown in a diagram labelled, 'Storyboard for Ivan's mornng routine' (Buggey 2007)               


  • Author 
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of image, figure
  • [Type of image]
  • Title of journal , (in Italics)
  • (Volume), Issue
  • pages
  • Available at: URL
  • [Date accessed].

Buggey. T. (2007) Storyboard for Ivan's morning routine. [Diagram] Journal of Positive Behaviour Interventions, 9 (3) p.151. Available at: Academic Search Premier, [Accessed 18 December 2013].


When referencing images that come from articles,

  • Check the article content for additional source information, such as a photographer or illustrator. 
  • If an alternate name is available, use that in place of the article's author(s).
  • If the image has a title or caption, use that in place of the article title. 
  • After the article or image title and before the journal title, insert the image type.
  • Image types are: Chart, Diagram, Graph, Illustration, Map, or Photograph
  • Replace the page range of the article with the page number for the image.