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Electronic, Computer and Software Engineering: Referencing

Information sources for Engineering.

What is Referencing?

What is Referencing?

Anything that you have read, and refer to in your academic writing, you must:·  

  • acknowledge in text (i.e. in the work / assignment/ essay you are writing) - citing


  • include in your reference list (i.e. the list at the end of your work of all the sources to which you refer) - referencing

This means books, journals, magazines, newspaper articles, websites, documents on websites (PDFs), lecture notes, PowerPoint slides.... 

Referencing Libguide.

Harvard Referencing

There are hundreds of various styles of referencing.  The Harvard style (or name and date) is one most used in TUS.  However, always check with your lecturer on which style they require.

TUS Cite them Right Harvard Libguide

Information Literacy Game


A series of short animated films that put copyright and creativity under the magnifying glass of Sherlock Holmes. Written, Produced and Directed by Ronan Deazley and Bartolomeo Meletti



A free, easy-to-use tool to help you collect, organize, cite, and share your research sources.  Download a client for Windows, Mac or Linux; a connector for Firefox, Edge, Chrome, or Safari; plugins for Microsoft Office and LibreOffice.  

Browser connectors can pick up detailed record metadata from library catalogue entries, official publications and websites as well as ejournal articles.  

Zotero's desktop client will also store pdfs where available online.  To add saved PDFs, drag and drop into the desktop client, Zotero will create the reference entry if the metadata is retrievable. 

Additional styles can be added from the repository.

If the Word plugin doesn't install, click on Cite - Word Processers - Install...

Zotero word plugin

To use for referencing a chapter in an edited book

  • Add the reference for the book, change the item type to book section.
  • Add the chapter title
  • Change the author to editor
  • Add an author field and type in the chapter author
  • Fill in the pages field

To use for In-text citation of secondary references

  • When adding the citation, use the prefix box to add the author who was quoted in the work you are referencing.Zotero edit in-text citation

Importing Word bibliographies - requires third party software.


Mendeley Referencing Management Software

Mendeley is free reference manager.  It includes a desktop version and a web importer.  

When installed, a Microsoft Word plugin may be added.
References may be extracted from pdf documents.  

Using Illustrations in your text


Text below is taken from, Cite Them Right by Pears and Shields 12th ed (2022, p. 25):

Cite Them Right is not  intended to replace any departmental regulations, nor can it provide guidance to cover the full range of academic subjects its readers are studying. If you are unsure about how you should present illustrations in your academic work, you should ask your tutor for guidance.

If no guidance is available from your tutor we suggest that you number each illustration in the order they are used in your work, and provide a caption that describes the illustration, beginning the caption with 'Figure', then the number, then the description.

If you have used an illustration from someone else's work, conclude the caption with, in round brackets, Source: and the details of where the illustration came from. Include full details in the reference list.

If possible, and definitely if your work is going to be published, you should obtain written permission from the creator of the illustration to reuse their work.


Possible Example: Figure 2: Questions the Literature Review can Answer (Source: The Learning Centre, 2007, p.66) 

Citing Illustrations, figures, diagrams or tables in Books or Articles

See Cite Them Right, 12th ed G 19.5 p .93


Image in a book


Image online






(The Learning Centre, 2007, p.25, Fig. 5)


As shown in a diagram labelled, 'Storyboard for Ivan's morning routine' (Buggey, 2007, Diagram. 9.1)




The Learning Centre (2007) Questions the literature review can answer. Dublin: Arrow Publishing, p. 25


Buggey. T. (2007) 'Storyboard for Ivan's morning routine', Journal of Positive Behaviour Interventions, 9(3) p.151. Available at: Academic Search Premier, (Accessed 18 December 2013).


Photographs and prints in books and online

Material type Examples: In-text reference Examples: Full reference

See Cite Them Right, 12th ed G 19.6 p .94


Photo in a book



Photo online





Seasonal changes were captured on film (Thomas, 2017)


Photos on the theme of dancing from Barnes and Barnes (1969)




Thomas, T. (2017) Redevelopment in Byker [Photograph]. Newcastle upon Tyne: Then & Now publishing



Barnes, R.H. and Barnes, R. (1969) Baha Kewa Payong Amun Toda dancing in Leu Tuan. Available at: (Accessed:  13 June 2021).