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AIT Harvard: Quick Reference Printable

Harvard quick reference

AIT Harvard quick reference

Harvard: In- text referencing

Here is an extract showing what in-text citations look like followed by the reference list

Example: Paraphrasing from a book

(This is an idea taken from a text but put in your own words)

On the subject of employee motivation Evenden and Anderson (1992, p. 45) suggest that in order to improve motivation for appraisal, that an objective for each key area of a job need to be developed

Note: 3 elements used – author surname, date and page.


In-text citation for quotes: Just add quotation marks on each end of the quote

'It would be foolhardy to think that all learning in organizations is planned' (French, 2005, p.123)


In-text reference: Multiple Authors:

3 or more authors can use 'et al.'

'All human psychology is influenced by upbringing'. (Critser et al., 2003, p.3).


In-Text reference for a source quoted in another source

If you refer to a source which you have not read, but which is mentioned in a source you have read, you cite both in the text of your essay but include only the work you have read in the list of references. This is also described as 'secondary citing'.

Example In text:

A study by Allen (2001, cited in Parker, 2009, p. 45) showed that…

In your list of references you should include only the work you have read, i.e. Parker


Harvard Referencing: Books


• Author (If editor; use abbreviation Ed after name) 
• Year of publication (in round brackets)
• Title (in Italics)
• Edition (only if not first, format edn.)
• Place of publishing: Publisher

 Practical example 

Buckroyd, J. (1996) Eating your heart out: understanding and overcoming eating disorders. 2nd edn., London: Vermilion.

NB: Minimal capitalization for Book titles: Only first letter of first word and Names or Places

NB.2: Book Titles in Italics



·         Author of the Chapter/ Section

·         Year of publication (in round brackets)

·         Title of Chapter/ Section

·         In: plus author/ editor of book

·         Title of book (In Italics)

·         Place of publication: Publisher

·         Page reference

Practical example

MacDonald, G.  (1997) Innovation diffusion and health education in schools. In: Sidell, M., Jones, L., Katz, J. and Peberdy, A.eds. Debates and dilemmas in promoting health. London: Open University, pp. 55-88.


Note: When referring to a work with editor/s, it is normally the case that each chapter/contribution is attributed to individual author/s. Therefore, it is the author of the chapter that you will be citing in-text. However, in the full reference you will need to insert the editor/s as well as the chapter author/s.

In the rare event that you may want to cite the whole of an edited book, you would simply reference it as a normal book but would replace author with editor in the in-text citation and put ed.or eds. after the editor/s name/s in the full reference.


·         Author 

·         Year of publication (in round brackets)

·         Title (in Italics)

·         [Online]

·         Edition (only if not first, format edn.)

·         Place of publishing:

·         Publisher (if available)

·         Available at: URL

·         [Accessed: date]

Practical example

Smith, J.C. (2005) Relaxation meditation & mindfulness. [Online]. New York: Springer. Available at: Ebrary database, [Accessed 21 August 2014].


Harvard referencing: Journal articles



·         Author (Surname, Initial.)

·         Year of publication (in round brackets)

·         Title of article (minimal capitalization & not in italics)  

·         Title of Journal (in Italics with maximum capitalization)   

·         Journal Volume

·         (Journal Issue), 

·         Page range pp.6 – 56.

·         Available at:

·         [Date Accessed]

Practical Example

Friese, M., Messner, C. and Schaffner, Y. (2012) Mindfulness meditation counteracts self-control depletion. Consciousness and Cognition, 21 (2), pp 1016-1022. Available at Science Direct Database, DOI 10.1016/j.concog.2012.01.008, [Accessed 4 July 2013].

Note: DOI = Digital Object Identifier. If a DOI number is available for the 
journal article it can be included in the reference in the 'Available at:' field.


Harvard referencing: Websites




·         Author / Owner / Creator of web site 

·         Year of publication (in round brackets)

·         Title (in Italics)

·         [Online]

·         Available at: URL

·         [Accessed: date].

 Practical example

BBC. (2012) Learning, online learning support and advice: your guide to science learning resources and online courses. [Online]. BBC, Available at: [Accessed 24 January 2012].


Note: A PDF report attached to a website are usually referenced just like a book or a report using the information available in the PDF; the reference then usually finishes with; Available at: The web url and Date accessed