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AIT Harvard: E Books

Referencing E Books

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

What is a Digital Object Identifier (DOI)?

digital object identifier (DOI) is a character string (a "digital identifier") used for identifying content objects in the digital environment, such as an electronic document.

DOI names are used to provide current information, including where they (or information about them) can be found on the Internet. Information about a digital object may change over time, including where to find it, but its DOI name will not change.

To find a document using a DOI

  1. Copy the DOI of the document you want to open and paste into search box at

More information

E Books


General E book Template

  • Author (If editor; use abbreviation Ed(s) after name) 
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title (in Italics)
  • Available at: url or database
  • [Date accessed]



Note: Where the e-book is available in PDF format it should be referenced as a printed book.


Note: E-books often lack page numbers (though PDF will have them). If page numbers are not available on eBooks readers, use the chapters or section headers instead for indicating the location of a quoted section












Include the book’s DOI (digital object identifier) or where you downloaded the e-book from (if there is no DOI)

E Book as PDF 

 Smith states..... (2008, p.8)


Smith, A. (2008) The wealth of nations. 2nd edn., London: Routledge.

E Book on College Journal Database (Jecter, 2007, chapter 5) Jester, R. (2007) Advancing practice in rehabilitation nursing. Available at: Ovid database [Accessed 10 June 2012].
E Book on College Journal Database: example 2  (Chakrabarti, 2007, sec. 13.1.1) ...

Chakrabarti, S. (2007) Handbook of offshore engineering. Available at Science Direct Database [Accessed 30 September 2012].

If a digital object identifier (DOI) is available include that also

Chakrabarti, S. (2007) Handbook of offshore engineering. Available at: Science Direct Database, DOI 10.1016/B978-008044381-2.50000-X [Accessed 30 September 2012].

Kindle Example

(Adams, 1979, 22% )

Note if no page number is available use Loc, % or section as appropriate

Adams, D. (1979) The hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy. Available at: [Accessed 20 November 2019].