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TUS Athlone Campus Harvard: Multi-Media; Digital Media and Design

Harvard Referencing guidelines

Citing Multimedia Formats

  • For audio-visual material there may be no author in which case the title and date can be provided in the in-text reference
  • Format details should be included
  • If the source is electronic, details of the online location and date of access should be included in your Reference List

Citing Multimedia Formats and paintings: Examples

Material Type

In-Text Example         

Reference List Example

Interview in a Television Programme

Note: You can list producers as authors                                                                                                                        

( O'Sullivan & Perceva, 2013)

Last name, Initial of person interviewed (Year) Title of the Interview (if any). Interview by/ with Interviewers First name Last Name, Title of publication (in Italics). [Medium /format in which the interview appeared] Broadcasting Corporation, Name of channel if applicable, Date and time of transmission if applicable.

Aideen O'Sullivan & Isabel Perceva (2013) Primetime. [Television broadcast] RTE, RTE One, 11 October 22:00.

Television Programme



                              Specific episode of a television show    








Use name of programme and date



(Nationwide, 2013)  

(The Apprentice, 2019)

(Desperate housewives, 2009) 






(Author/ Director, Date)                            



Name of programme (Date) Broadcaster, Date Viewed, time.


Nationwide (2013)  [Television broadcast] RTE, RTE One, 16 December 20:00

The Apprentice (2019) [Television broadcast] BBC, BBC One, 10 October 21:00

Desperate housewives, Episode 16, Crime doesn't pay. (2009) Channel 4. 8 April, 22.00..





Author / Producer / Director (Date) Title. Full name of director. dir.     Name and location of theatre: Theatre company. Date seen. 

O'Neill, J. (2020) What I don't know about Autism. Jody O'Neill. dir. Mermaid Arts Centre, Bray. Abbey Theatre. 15 February 2020.

Shakespeare, W. (2020) Julius Caesar. Nicholas Hyter. dir. Bridge Theatre, London. Bridge Theatre.14 December 2020.

Film on Disk / Storage Device / Streaming

If you refer to a film, video or broadcast, you should cite the director and the date.

(Forman, 2002)


Director name, initial(s). (year of distribution) Title of Film [format], 

Place of Distribution: Distribution Company

Forman, M. (2002) One flew over the cuckoo's nest. [DVD] Burbank, CA.: Warner home video.

Give the publication medium in square brackets after the title,

e.g. [film], [DVD], [video]. [blu-ray],… If you have streamed the

film use the supplier name e.g. [Netflix]


Video online (incl youtube)

(Everywhere Psychology, 2012)

Screen name of contributor (year) Video Title, Series, (if relevant) [video online], Available at: url [Accessed date].

Everywhere Psychology (2012) Bandura's bobo doll experiment. [Video online] Available at: [Accessed 19 October 2013].


Podcast … (Leach, 2012) …

Broadcaster (year) ‘Programme title’, Series Title [Podcast], date of
transmission, Available at: url [Accessed date].

Leach, B. (2012) Bandura. [Podcast] 6 March, Available at: [Accessed 23 July 2013].





• Author or tutor
• Year of publication (in round brackets)
• Title of item 
• Code: Name of academic module (in italics)
• Available at: URL of VLE
• (Accessed date).

Moodle example

Note: see also seperate moodle tab on this site

Grimes (2002) stated……

Grimes, D. & Schultz, K. (2002)  Dissertation preparation materials. HP832: Research methods. Available at: (Accessed 7 March 2013).

Painting: template 




  • Artist
  • Year if available
  • Title of work. (In italics)
  • [Medium]
  • Institute or collection that houses the work followed by city
  • [Online]
  • Available at: URL
  • [Accessed date].
Painting: example


(Coelle, 1964)



When in-text referencing an image of an artwork in a book, online or 
in some other format, rather than to the original work, refer to the original artwork in italics in your text, followed by the citation to the source of the image, with a page 
number reference if possible. 

(Auvers: Village Panorama in Smith 2007, p.18) …

Coello (1964) The triumph of St Augustine. [Oil on Canvas]. Museo del Prado, Madrid.





When referring to an image of an artwork in a book, online or in some other format, rather than to the original work, refer in your bibliography to the book you consulted which contains the image. 


Cartoon  Template


  • Artist
  • Date if available
  • Title of cartoon
  • [Cartoon]
  • Title of publication (In Italics)
  • Day and Month
  • [Online]
  • Available through: URL
  • [Accessed date].
Cartoon: example (Turner, 2011) Turner, M. (2011) Spot the difference. [Cartoon] Irish Times. 31 October.
Video Game

(Title of game, date) or

Title of game (Date)

In Assassin's Creed brotherhood (2011) we see..

Title of game (Year) Platform [Game]. Publisher: Place of publication.

Assassin's creed brotherhood (2011) Xbox [Game]. Ubisoft: Montreal.