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TUS: Cite them right: Harvard Guide

Citing Material from the Internet and Social Media


When citing websites or web-pages which are subject to change it is vital to make a note of the date when you accessed the page or retrieved information.  Note the URL/web address of the page you have taken your reference from as you will need this information for your references.

Note: PDFs on a website are usually referenced just like a book using information available in the PDF; the reference then usually finishes with; Available at: URL (Accessed: date).


Referencing web-pages

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

See Cite Them Right; 12th Edn G24.1 p. 116-17

Website citation order:

(Name, Year)

  • Author / Owner / Creator of web site 
  • Year website created of last updated (in round brackets)
  • Title (in Italics)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date).


Website organisation as author

(University of Limerick, 2005)

University of Limerick Library (2005) Cite it right, a guide to referencing in UL using the Harvard referencing style. Available at: (Accessed: 10 November 2007).

Website with personal author Professor Verlet's (2021) research profile Verlet, J.R.R. (2021) Dynamics of anion formation. Available at: (Accessed: 14 May 2021).

Webpage: No Author

Use the title of the webpage or if no title either then use the url

(Improve indigenous housing, 2007)

Improve indigenous housing now, government told(2007) Available at: (Accessed 8 February 2009).

Webpage: No Date

(Jones, no date)

Jones, M. (no date) Commentary on indigenous housing initiatives. Available at: (Accessed 6 June 2009).

Note: If the website has no obvious date of publication / revision, use the author (no date) and the date you accessed the page. You might question how useful undated information is to your research as it may be out of date.

Web Document

The web PDF can be referenced using information on the PDF and also the URL and date accessed

(Department of Health and Children, 2012)

Department of Health and Children (2012) The national carer’s strategy: recognised, supported, empowered. Dublin: Brunswick Press. Available at:  (Accessed: 28 February 2009).

Referencing Social Media

Material type In-text reference Reference list
The date (Day and Month) are required for blogs and social media posts.

See Cite Them Right; 12th Edn G24.6 p. 117

Blogs/vlogs citation order

Blogs example:

(Author, Date)

 (Technological University of the Shannon, 2022)


Author of message

Year the site was last updated (in round brackets)

Title if blog post (in single quotation marks)

Title of internet site (in Italics) 

Day/month of posted message

Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Technological University of the Shannon (2022) 'How to argue with a scientist: a guide', TUS library science blog. 19th December. Available at:  (Accessed: 20 August 2023).

Note: The title of the blog is in inverted commas and the Blog name is in Italics

See Cite Them Right;  G26.2 p. 121

Facebook citation order

Facebook example:

(Author, Date)

(Technological University of the Shannon, 2023)

CITATION ORDER Facebook, Twitter, Weibo, TikTok

Author of post

Year posted (in round brackets)

Title or description of post (in single quotation marks)

[Name of platform]

Day/month posted

Available at:URL (Accessed: date)

Technological University of the Shannon (2023) 'Graduation 2023: atmosphere of the day.' [Facebook] 31 October. Available at: (Accessed: 1 Nov 2023).

Twitter example:

(Technological University of the Shannon, 2023) Technological University of the Shannon (2023) 'We are recruiting for various academic, administrative and research positions.' [Twitter] 24 July. Available at: (Accessed: 6 August 2023).

See Cite Them Right;  G24.7 p. 118

Wikipedia citation order

Wikipedia example:

('Title', date)

'W.B. Yeats', 2022)


'Title of article' in single quotation marks

Year the entry was published / last updated  (in round brackets)

Title of wiki site (in italics)

Available at URL (Accessed: date).

 'W.B. Yeats' (2022) Wikipedia. Available at: (Accessed: 11 No 2023).

See Cite Them Right;  G21.2 p. 105

Podcast: Citation order



Podcast: example:


(Author, date)





… (Leach, 2012)

  • Author/presenter
  • Year that the site was published/ last updated (in round brackets)
  • Title of Podcast (in Italics)
  • [Podcast]
  • Day/month of posted message
  • Available at: URL (Accessed: date)



Leach, B. (2012) Bandura. [Podcast] 6 March, Available at: [Accessed 23 July 2013]