Skip to Main Content

TUS Logo

TUS: Cite them right: Harvard Guide

Citing Virtual Learning Environments (e.g. Moodle) and Digital Repositories

Note: Check with your tutor whether you are allowed to refer to course materials in your own work. It is more academically correct to refer to published sources. If you can cite these sources, you will need to distinguish what you are citing, which may include lecture notes, presentation slides, recorded lectures, journal articles and book chapters.

(See Cite Them Right; 12th Edn G7. p. 63-66)

VLE: Examples

Material Type In-Text Example  Reference List Example

Journal article: 

For journal articles in VLE's where you have all the required elements for the reader to track the article down, you should simply cite and reference the article as normal

Book extract: You my be given and extract or chapter from a book or from an edited book. Cite as normal for a book or for a chapter in an edited book.

See Cite Them Right, 12th ed G7.5 p .65

Presentation: Powerpoint, Prezi, etc.

(Author, date)

Citation order:

Author or tutor

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of presentation (in single quotation marks)

[Presentation slides]

Modular code: module title (in italics)

Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

PowerPoint in Moodle: Example:  (Booth,  2011) Booth, L (2011) 'History of radiography' [PowerPoint presentation]. MISR4004: Patient care skills: an introduction to human sciences. Available at: (Accessed: 7 August 2012).

See Cite Them Right, 12th ed G7.1 p .63

Lecture notes: Citation order: 

Doherty (2014) states

Citation order:

  • Author or tutor
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of Item (in single quotation marks)
  • Module Code: Name of Academic module (In Italics)
  • Available at: URL of VLE
  • (Accessed: date).
Lecture notes: Example: Doherty (2014) states

Doherty, S. (2014) 'Disorders of the GI tract'. AL_NGENR_B_2: Holistic Care Nutr & Gastroint. Available at: (Accessed 16 Nov 2014).

Digital Repositories

Material Type In-text Example Reference List Example

See Cite Them Right, 12th ed G8.1 p .67

Digital Repositories


Note: Reference books and journal articles in repositories as you would for print versions, unless they are only available online, in which case use the URL or DOI

See Cite Them Right, 12th ed G8.4  p .68


Journal article online in a digital repository: citation order:

Citation order:

  • Author(s)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of article (in single quotation marks)
  • Version (in square brackets)
  • To be published in (if this is stated)
  • Title of journal (in italics if stated)
  • Available at: URL or  DOI (Accessed: date).
Online thesis: Example: (Vladimar, 2004) Vladimar, M. (2004) The application of Electro-Etching in the manufacturing process for cardiovascular stents. Dissertation (MA), Galway: Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology. Available at: (Accessed 24 February 2015).