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APA Referencing Guide 7th Edition: Lecture

A guide to help users create citations using APA (American Psychological Association) style, 7th edition


Important Note: This format would be used if you were citing a set of notes and/or documents from a lecture (e.g. PDF, Excel, Word document, or PowerPoint slides provided by your instructor).

Tip: Cite information from your own personal notes from a lecture as personal communication and refer to it only in the body of your essay. Follow the format examples for personal communication available under the Interview section.

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):  (Author Surname, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):     (Author Surname, Year)


Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Lecture title [Format]. URL of website.


In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):  (Smith, 2010)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):     (Smith, 2010)

Butera, G. (2017). Lecture 4: Demystifying APA citation [PowerPoint slides]. TUS Introduction to Public Health Services whiteboard.  WIP

Rules, PP, PDF etc.

APA has rules to support clear and concise writing and attribution of work but there are areas where they do not have a specific rule - and PowerPoint is one of them.

you should ALWAYS check with your lecturer on their APA citation style preferences for PowerPoint slices.  WIP


Question: Should I include my references on each slide or at the end of the PPT?

  • Answer: If you include your references on each slide your slide may become too busy with too much text.  This can be distracting to your audience. 
  • Best Practice: Consider adding an in-text citation on the slide and include all of your references at the end of the PPT presentation. 


Question: How do I cite an image, table, and/or figure on a PPT slide?

  • Answer: Use the same guidelines for citing images/tables/figures in APA in a paper and include your references at the end of the PPT presentation.
  • Best Practice: Always include the proper citation directly under the table/figure following APA rules. Use a smaller text size to avoid distraction/too busy slide. (See APA Blog: Navigating Copyright: How to Cite Sources in a Table.

Question: Should my references be double spaced or single spaced?

  • Answer: Although APA does require references to be double spaced you may exercise flexibility and single space the references.
  • Best Practice: Use single space and smaller font size but otherwise follow the APA citation format for references (i.e list in alphabetical order, indent